By David Henderson, APA Dissertation Editor
When writing a dissertation, thesis, or some other academic text, the introduction is, of course, the first thing a reader will lay eyes on, besides the title and abstract. Not only does it provide an overview of the rest of the work, but it sets the tone and creates the first impression a reader has with your work. Even if the rest of the dissertation is flawlessly written and brilliantly argued, a subpar introduction can subvert the whole effort. Mastering the elements of a well written introduction – clarity, succinctness, cogence, and adhering strictly to the topic at hand – will set you on the right track and serve you well as you develop the subsequent sections of the dissertation.
Craft a proper title.
Technically, this is distinct from the introduction, but the title is an introduction in and of itself. Poorly written titles have the same effect as poorly written introductions: they leave the reader uncertain about what the paper is actually about and may convey the notion that the work itself is unsatisfactory. Above all, make sure your title is specific. Concretely describe the focus of your research. If your title is so generic that it could just as easily be applied to a dozen other papers in the field, change it. Using the “title: subtitle” format is often helpful; for example, The cinema of attraction: Early film, its spectator, and the avant-garde.
State the thesis clearly
The thesis statement (or just “thesis” for short) is the declaration of your argument—the central point you want to make. (Lest there be any confusion, note that all academic papers have a “thesis” or “thesis statement,” not only theses per se.) The thesis statement argues, explains, or analyzes something. With few exceptions, it should appear in the first paragraph of the introduction. You want to make clear to the reader as soon as possible what this paper is all about. If you can’t say it succinctly, in one simple sentence, the premise of your research might be flawed (confusingly framed, too broadly drawn, etc.). As with titles, the number one rule is be specific. Use straightforward, concrete, precise language, and don’t conceal the thesis beneath a lot of verbal window dressing—which leads me to the next point…
Keep it simple; don’t try to “get fancy”
Scholars often seem to operate under the mistaken assumption that academic writing should be complicated and verbose, and that they must dazzle the reader with a multisyllabic vocabulary and elaborate sentence structure. If you have a natural gift for this kind of writing, then embrace it, but if not, that’s fine; don’t force it. Stylistic and verbal flair does enhance the quality of the prose, but it is secondary to, and often gets in the way of, clarity. And trust me, your professors will not be fooled by empty modifiers and redundant verbiage that “sounds” academic but doesn’t actually contribute anything to the text. Your first job is to get the point across. Usually, the best way to say something is the simplest. This applies to any section of the dissertation but especially the introduction, where “economy of words” is imperative.
Minimize background information
Probably half of the dissertations or theses that I edit are guilty of this infraction: cramming too much background information into the introduction. A little bit goes a long way. Typically, especially in the social sciences, after the introductory paragraph, it’s good to establish some context for your research. Orient the reader within the field and familiarize him with the problem addressed by your research, but keep the focus narrowly drawn. Cut out tangential information, that which is only minimally, indirectly relevant to the subject at hand. Unless you’re writing a history paper or analyzing the development over time of some phenomenon within your field, do not expound on the historical background. Some recent history is usually edifying but, as a general rule, the farther back you go, the less relevant it is. You have more leeway to explain background/context in the literature review, but even there, it is almost always best to keep it to a minimum.
About the author
DAVID HENDERSON has built up a distinguished career as an APA editor and academic writing consultant for dissertations and theses.
After earning his master’s degree in Journalism at Northwestern University, he spent five years working for an academic press and later for a major publishing house.
He has worked with over a hundred graduate students at all stages of the thesis and dissertation writing process and in a wide range of academic disciplines, including education, history, literature, medicine, biology, sociology, and business. This experience has also made him a specialist in APA formatting, which is another service he offers to graduate students who are writing theses, dissertations, or capstone projects.
In addition to an eagle-eyed ability to spot errors of mechanics and a thorough comprehension of even the most arcane points of grammar, David relishes the process of working with the graduate student to get at the substantive components of a scholarly work and finding ways to make those parts cohere into a functional, unified whole.
Being an effective thesis and dissertation editor often necessitates being an educator of sorts, especially when working with less experienced academic writers. Hence, David helps students understand the craft of scholarly writing as well as the editorial changes made to the document. He has found this approach to be effective for producing polished works of scholarly writing.
David has assisted scholars by:
- Consulting On Topic Selection And Question Development
- Providing Guidance On How To Improve Organization And Flow Of Ideas
- Helping Students Streamline Their Essays By Reducing Wordiness, Rewriting Content To Make It Clearer And More Succinct, And Cutting Redundant Or Repetitive Text
- Conducting A Literature Review And Applying The Literature To One’s Own Research
- Clarifying Research Questions And Articulating Problem Statements
- Devising A Methodology That Is Suited To The Research And Precisely, Thoroughly Explaining That Methodology In The Dissertation
- Rewriting Content To Imbue The Text With A Stronger, More Professional Academic Style
- Helping Scholars With The Heart Of The Dissertation: Synthesizing The Findings And Developing The Discussion, Analysis, And Conclusions And Recommendations Sections
- Ensuring Compliance With APA Guidelines, Including Citations, Figure/Table Formatting, Table Of Contents And Headings, Reference List, And Other Style Guide Requirements
- Conducting General Proofreading And Copy Editing
APA Editor Reviews
“Even among a team of highly proficient editors at the publishing house where I supervised him, David distinguished himself through his dedication, thoroughness, and genuine concern for each and every project that came across his desk. I know that he understands the value and power of the written word and also values the unique talents and perspective of each author – this concern shows in his editing work. I trust him enough that I would hire him to edit my own book.” – Max Grigorev
“David’s professionalism is obvious, based solely on the thoroughness of his editing work. Not only does he take the time to prepare the best manuscript possible, but he also pays attention to the particulars of the story. When he makes a suggestion, it’s proof that he’s treating the work as both an editor and a reader.” – Jason Garrett, author of Troubled Souls (“Best Horror” Winner of the 2013 National Indie Excellence Awards and Winner of the 2013 Beverly Hills Book Award)
“David Henderson was another editor who helped me with multiple edits of the manuscript. He inspired me to open up more in my expressions and better articulate to readers the reality of my life experience that I was sharing with them. I found that as we worked together I felt more confident about my writing. As a result, my story was able to become even richer in depth, much like a piece of art.” – Samantha Michael, author of The Beauty of My Shadow